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19 Dec 2019 / by Eddie Lau, Hugh Davies

The Many Video Game Versions of Hong Kong

Video game still depicting an animated Hong Kong street scene. A casually dressed man in the foreground is leaning towards the camera with his mouth open as if shouting something. Behind him, a man in office clothes jumps high in the air while sitting on a rolling office chair.

In Kung Fu Rider, players escape from the triads in Hong Kong by navigating crowded streets on an office chair. Image: Kung Fu Rider (2010). © SIE Japan Studio

Eddie Lau and Hugh Davies discuss the different depictions of Hong Kong in video games.

Hong Kong is disproportionately represented in the world of video games. The blog Hong Kong in Video Games lists over 180 examples of games set in the city. The blog’s creator is video game fan and software engineer Eddie Lau, who grew up in Hong Kong and currently works in the United States. Here, he chats with Australia-based media researcher, artist, and M+ / Hong Kong Design Trust Fellow Hugh Davies about their shared passion for Hong Kong’s depiction in video games and the rich visual character these playful experiences contain.

Hugh Davies: You’ve been blogging about Hong Kong in video games since 2015. How did you decide upon this personal research project?

Eddie Lau: As a teenager, I spent quite some time playing video games and following related news and reviews. I even imagined being a video game magazine editor one day! Then, around the summer of 2015, I saw some articles discussing Hong Kong in video games. I felt qualified to expand on this theme by highlighting the actual history and culture of the city and how it informs the games. So, I decided to start the blog to diversify my career and draw public attention to the city. It’s become quite educational and fun for both the readers and me. What about you? How did you start to research this subject?

Hugh: Well, in 2016, I co-created a pervasive game called Xon Kon set in the streets of Hong Kong. Part of the game production process involved making a 3D model of the city based entirely on its depictions in virtual imagery. It was a tricky business, but your blog became an invaluable resource. Undertaking this project also made it clear how often Hong Kong appears in video games, which became a big part of my next research project. It appears in video games much more often than in most other cities. Why do you think that is?

Video game still depicting a plane flying low over the rooftops of numerous buildings. The buildings are covered in brightly coloured signs with Chinese characters on them.

A Hong Kong stage from fighting game Real Bout Fatal Fury Special. Image: Real Bout Fatal Fury Special (1997). © SNK

Eddie: I noticed the statement in your article discussing Hong Kong as a popular gaming location. I agree. It’s kind of surprising, given that Hong Kong is such a small place and not somewhere many game designers call home. I think there are two reasons.

Photograph mounted on acrylic showing six levels of a residential building's balconies with hanging laundry, potted plants, and buckets. Metal grilles featuring curved bars stretch from the bottom to the zinc roof of many of the balconies, which fill the photograph.

Ian Lambot. Kowloon Walled City—Caged Balconies, 1990, printed 2015. Inkjet print. M+, Hong Kong © Ian Lambot

First, Hong Kong has developed a unique visual culture over the past 150 years, and many of its features are adaptable to video games. I’m not just talking about the stunning metropolitan landscapes, the colourful advertising, the myriad skyscrapers, and the spectacular Victoria Harbour views. The city has also managed to preserve many aspects of traditional Chinese culture, like feng shui and myths, while simultaneously coming up with its characteristic local landmarks, such as the enigmatic Kowloon Walled City and the legendary Kai Tak Airport. The local movie industry has also heavily influenced video games with kung fu, action-adventure, and triad movies. When game designers take elements from these genres, they evoke characters and locations intrinsically associated with the city.

Photograph of a rectangular mass of very tightly packed tall buildings viewed from above. The buildings are surrounded by empty land covered in roads and a group of more sparsely spread out high-rises.

Ian Lambot. Kowloon Walled City—Aerial View from the Southwest, 1989, printed 2013. Inkjet print face mounted to acrylic and aluminium. M+, Hong Kong © Ian Lambot

The second reason is the sense of belonging that has taken root in the current generation of Hongkongers. This accounts for the rise of local game designers choosing Hong Kong as their setting. Having grown up in the city, these makers want to use their games to preserve and promote the history and culture of their hometown and, sometimes, communicate their views on specific social and political affairs here.

A still image from a computer game depicting a rectangular mass of very tightly packed tall buildings. The buildings are surrounded by empty land covered in roads.

Hong Kong-developed video game Cage (2018) is a 3D adventure game set in Kowloon Walled City. Image: Cage, 2018. © Artist: Yo Mak, designer: Poki Chan, Scaffold Studio

Hugh: I see this in the game Cage (2018), set in Kowloon Walled City. To reclaim the city from occidental representations, the local Hong Kong developers interviewed former residents and collected hand-drawn maps to rebuild it accurately and respectfully in the game space. A similarly authentic Kowloon is evoked in the game Oblige (2017). Both games successfully draw on local knowledge and history to recreate intimate and domestic spaces.

Are there any other games that you think really capture the mood or landscape of Hong Kong?

A video game still depicting a black background with multiple yellow pixelated renditions of humans in conical hats walking around. A blue figure in the front bends down to seemingly pick something up from the ground. Small yellow dots are strewn about the scene. On either side are numerous colourful rectangles with Chinese characters on them to mimic neon signs. A red wavy pixelated line with an approximation of a Chinese dragon head is placed amongst the people. Words on top of the screen say ‘Score 13473’, ‘Trashman MALLOID in Hong Kong’, and ‘Cash £1097’.

The Hong Kong stage from Travel with Trashman, the second game in the Trashman series in which the player has to pick up trash. Image: Travel with Trashman (1984). © New Generation Software

Eddie: Two games warrant mention. The first is Travel with Trashman (1984). It was created by a British developer and is one of the earliest games ever to depict Hong Kong. With the limited computing graphics of the era, the design depicts neon signs, Chinese dragon dances, and labourers wearing conical hats, all of which give a vivid impression of 1980s Hong Kong as seen through the eyes of a foreigner. This Chinese metropolitan stereotype appears in many other video game versions of Hong Kong created by foreigners.

Hugh: I totally agree! That game ultimately set the standard for Western depictions of Hong Kong—those neon-lit streets are everywhere now, from Shadowrun: Hong Kong (2015) to The Hong Kong Massacre (2019).

A video game still showing an animated nighttime street scene in which multiple people with umbrellas cross a street in front of waiting cars. Neon signs with Chinese characters can be seen in the background.

The Hong Kong Massacre follows a former police detective in 1990s Hong Kong as he sets out to enact revenge against a triad for the death of his partner. Image: The Hong Kong Massacre (2019). © VRESKI

What is the second game you wanted to mention?

Eddie: Little Fighter 2 (1999): It’s one of the earliest locally made games that includes Hong Kong stages. One stage is set at the University Mall of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The university’s unique sculpture known as the ‘Gate of Wisdom’, which is prominently featured on the stage, clearly appealed to the local designers who were graduates of the school. Students walk by this sculpture between classes, and there is even a rumour that if you pass through it, you won’t graduate. Since it is often used for assemblies and forums, past students may remember it as a place of fervent debates. The stage may not be familiar to foreigners. However, it has a special meaning for locals.

A video game still showing fighters combating in front of an old squatter village. Behind the village there are modern residential complexes.

Modern residential complexes of Plaza Hollywood and Galaxia loom over old Tai Hom Village as featured in a Hong Kong stage of Little Fighter 2. Image: Little Fighter 2 (1999). © Marti Wong & Starsky Wong

In another stage, you see the old Tai Hom Village, which was then about to be demolished. There’s even a demonstration banner hung up out front protesting the demolition, stating that villagers would have nowhere to live. Meanwhile, the modern residential complexes of Plaza Hollywood and Galaxia loom in the background. This replacement of heritage structures has been a heated social topic.

Through this game, you get some ideas on new points of view that locally-made video games can provide. The objects and places portrayed closely relate to Hongkongers’ daily lives. This is not limited to objects and places but also local incidents and affairs and the responding sentiments and attitudes.

Video game still depicting an animated cartoon street scene. On the left, protesters in goggles and black T-shirts with yellow ribbons stand behind barricades made out of metal fences. Some of them have facemasks and some hold up umbrellas for protection. On the right, multiple policemen make their way towards the barricades. Some are dressed in riot gear and one holds a can of tear gas. Behind the policemen walks a man in a suit with wolf ears and a tail. Next to the policemen are people with white T shirts with blue ribbons, an angry man holding a metal pipe, and a person with lobster claws for hands, also making their way towards the barricades.

In Yellow Umbrella, players defend their camp against waves of police, triads, anti-Occupy protesters, and politicians. Image: Yellow Umbrella (2014). © Awesapp

Hugh: Yeah, I’ve noticed several recent video games expressing popular Hong Kong sentiments. I’m thinking here of protest games such as Yellow Umbrella (2014), Days of Glory 1988 (2016), and the recent first-person action game Liberate Hong Kong (2019). Video games have become an important critical platform of expression and communication within Hong Kong’s protest movements.

You also reviewed The Revolution of Our Times I (2019) on Google Play. I like that you mentioned how the game presents the difficult decisions experienced by protesters in dealing with family, friends, and workplaces. This personal and political tension closely relates to what friends active in the movement have reported.

A video game still depicting an animated nighttime Hong Kong street scene. The camera is placed behind people wearing black clothing, gas masks, and yellow helmets standing behind barricades made out of metal fences. They look towards a bright light shining a head. The street is lined with brightly coloured neon signs with Chinese characters.

Liberate Hong Kong is a first-person game simulates the current protests in Hong Kong, putting the player in the protester role. Image: Liberate Hong Kong (2019). Anonymous

Eddie: Yes, Liberate Hong Kong reconstructs the fierce street protests, with roadblocks, fire, tear gas, and riot police in the virtual world. Navigating through the chaotic scene, you could be hurt or arrested through a slight hesitation or mistake. The interactive visual novel The Revolution of Our Times I presents players with the same difficult decisions that protestors face in the real world. One wrong choice, and you lose—not just the campaign but also your relationships and employment. The first time I played, I got a ‘game over’ just because I admitted my protest participation to my boss. He reported the case to the police, and I was arrested. Having your opinion heard was never that costly in the past.

Hugh: I’m so impressed by how these game developers attempt to capture the city’s challenging physical and emotional landscape at present—and in a very gameful way. By confronting players with difficult and impactful decisions, they convey some of the situation’s complexity. Video games have become a notable characteristic of the protests, from the Pokémon Go demonstrations to the Blizzard / Blitzchung controversy, as well as these two recent protest games.

Eddie: Like many in Hong Kong and around the world, I hope the city will soon return to a state of safety, openness, and fairness. Only then will people have the environment, time, and energy to discuss innovative ideas and contribute to quality artworks. I look forward to enhanced versions of these games that cover more events and characters. They would be valuable historical records for both video games and Hong Kong.

Hugh: Liberate Hong Kong seems to depict the actual streetscapes of the city closely. What are some of the other visually accurate representations of Hong Kong in game spaces that you are aware of?

Kung Fu Rider gameplay © SIE Japan Studio

Eddie: People have different impressions of Hong Kong, so it’s very subjective. For me, the city is composed of small but familiar details, such as road signs, vehicles, and storefronts that, taken together, form familiar street views distinct to this city. Developments in game technology over the past twenty years have allowed these details to be lovingly reproduced in the virtual world. Games like Gran Turismo 4 (2004), Kung Fu Rider (2010), Sleeping Dogs (2012), and Resident Evil 6 (2013) have done a great job of recreating them. Playing these games makes me feel like I’m navigating the real Hong Kong.

Hugh: Those details make a big difference. For example, I love how Kung Fu Rider draws attention to the gradient of the city by getting the player to speed down the Mid-Levels on office chairs. That game beautifully captures Hong Kong’s daylight and shadows too. Likewise, Sleeping Dogs creates a convincing approximation of the city complemented by an unmistakably Hong Kong soundscape of Cantonese banter, ambient traffic noises, and rain.

I also notice that these games rely on violent narratives and game mechanics. Many games set in Hong Kong do. Do you have any concerns about the way the city is depicted?

Three men, all topless, guide a long trolley highly stacked high with cardboard boxes down a Hong Kong street.

Martin Parr. Hong Kong (LON156461), 2013. Pigment print. M+, Hong Kong. Gift of Martin Parr, 2014
© Martin Parr

Eddie: Not really. I just feel proud that the game designers included the city. Most players know that video games have imaginative components—that what they see is not a true representation of the real world.

Hugh: Do you think this is a subject of interest that appeals to many people?

Eddie: I wouldn’t say my blog has millions of followers. But I sometimes receive comments from readers stating that they’ve learned about Hong Kong through it. Some were even inspired to create video game plug-ins to contribute to video game versions of Hong Kong, like this project that reconstructs a World War II bunker system in Hong Kong for Counterstrike: Global Offensive (2012). This encourages me to continue.

After writing for a while, I’ve also become more and more convinced that Hong Kong is a genuinely fabulous place. Even though the city may seem small and young, it already has a remarkable history and a diverse culture. This is reflected by Hong Kong’s influence in video games and the real world. I hope others will feel the same after reading my blog.

This article was originally published on M+ Stories.

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